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Drink Less, Enjoy Life More – Everywhere but New Zealand.

Global trends show that alcohol consumption is declining.

The youth of Britain, Australia, Iceland are drinking less, and even the stalwart drinking Russians are laying off the tipple. New Zealand is bucking this trend, both the younger demographic and older demographic are prone to hazardous drinking.

Why is the global trend declining yet New Zealand falling behind? And what does this mean for your independent brewers?

In spite of the trend in New Zealand, we think the global trend is a good thing for independent brewers, here’s why:

Respect the drink.

For individuals, alcohol binging to the point of becoming a danger to yourself or others is not respecting the drink. No one needs a sermon on blackouts, hangovers and walks of shame – most are familiar with the harsh byproducts of excessive consumption.

Today it is surprising (and refreshing) to see that the binge drinking culture of Britain has drastically declined. In 2016, 35% of Britons considered themselves non-drinkers, up from 12% in 2001. Xenia Clegg Littler, a young actress from London, reflects on her disinterest in drinking alcohol:

“I’d rather wake up in the morning and get on with my day and achieve what I want to achieve than wake up with a massive hangover, I need to have control over where I am, and what I do.”

For Alcohol producers, respecting the drink means making the highest quality product possible. Inversely, it means not mass producing alcohol and selling it cheaply. The Americans, say what you will about them, are again setting the example. In order to sustain the quality and become sustainable, US beer can charge more, and consumers are just fine with this.  In contrast, their has been a dramatic increase in alcohol-free beer in the UK. This in part to both better health choices by millennials and a higher mark up for stronger beers.

In New Zealand, most alcohol has become cheaper since 2012. This is an odd turn around as reflected in New Zealand Beer Wikipedia page:

With a growth rate of 25% per year, Craft beer and microbreweries were blamed for a 15 million litre drop in alcohol sales overall in 2012, with Kiwis opting for higher-priced premium beers over cheaper brands.

Blame‘ is an interesting choice of words. Currently alcohol sales are booming in New Zealand, and it coinciding with the price drop in alcohol. Who or what is behind the price drop and what effect will it have on New Zealand?

Keep it honest.

Children’s novelist Spencer Johnson is quoted for “Integrity is telling myself the truth. And honesty is telling the truth to other people.” Is the New Zealand Brewer’s Association being transparent with consumers?

  • Truth in advertising. First of all, beer is not the beautiful truth. The Brewer’s Association promotion of beer as a health drink is wildly dishonest.
  • Who’s your daddy? It is essential knowing where your beer comes from. White Labeling and its variants can be used deception marketing. This happens in two ways. The first way is by creating ‘premium’ looking brand and marking up a cheap product. Secondly, larger brewers can buy a local brewery, and use the former brewers reputation to sell flog massive amounts of beer. See our article on the illusion of choice.
  • Preying on the vulnerable – By producing cheap swill, it affects vulnerable population of New Zealand. From Ministry of Health‘s 2016/17 Health Survey:  adult drinkers in the most deprived areas were 1.7 times more likely to be hazardous drinkers than adult drinkers in the least deprived areas. In addition, Lion Australia, has been

There is a Scandinavian proverb that seems apt here: “Urinating in your trousers will not keep you warm in winter“, meaning a temporary solution won’t fix a long term problem. In this case, the problem is declining sales of poorly made beer. Their solution? Make it cheaper! The good news is that we’ve become smarter consumers. The article Twilight of the Brands demonstrates a relevant example of this. Consumers eventually caught on to Lululemons cheap products and the founder’s flippant remarks nearly dive-bombed his brand:

But then customers started complaining about pilling fabrics, bleeding dyes, and, most memorably, yoga pants so thin that they effectively became transparent when you bent over.  Lululemon’s founder made things worse by suggesting that some women were too fat to wear the company’s clothes.

Foundations built on dishonesty, lies and deception are a poor legacy to leave behind.

Enjoy the drink. 

Let’s face it – we love to drink! Sharing a drink celebrates passages in our life, and that is something ever brewer should endeavor to remember. We want our drinks to be part of those memories – whether its a wedding, a new job, your first child (or 3rd!). As craft brewers, its pure joy to create a product that can augment memorable moments in life.

We respect those who drink less or decide not drink at all. Regardless of your choice, it becomes our privilege to share our drinks with you.

 

 

Post Script:

In regards to enjoying your beverage – we created little meme generator with the help our friend Matej earlier in the year. We call it stories between the sips – as good beer is meant to be savoured, not skulled! We invite everyone to share their ‘meditations on a good pint’ here:

Our favourite so far by MusicalBeers:

 

Stories behind the sips

Let’s face it, the best ideas had are usually in the shower or after a sip. Unfortunately, showers aren’t terrible portable – and people aren’t always comfortable sharing ideas in the shower. That’s why beer is hands down the best idea generator!

When we first started planning what Outlier Cartel would be, we went down to our favourite Japanese joint in downtown Auckland, Genta. The first thing we would order was a tall, chilled mug of Orion beer. As we talked about our aspirations we noticed that inspiration would always come immediately after a sip of beer. And like a grand tree tells its life story through its rings, so did our tall mugs with its concentric lacing.

After every sip, a new story formed, and it was told right there in our glasses!

So with the help of some designers and a skilled programmer, we decided to create our own meme generator, “What’s your story between the sips?” Whether your thoughts are whimsical, serious, funny, obscure or just plain obvious – we would love to hear them! Click here to generate your own: https://outliercartel.com/your-sip-story/

stories between the sips

Your beer is bad and you should feel bad – dealing with unsavoury reviews

If you are an indy brewer, then you know how much sway that Untappd reviews have. It’s a superb way of getting feedback, especially if you do non-traditional, obscure or experimental brews. Though not everyone may not like your product, but it is a good way to gauge your product’s quality.

However, sometimes people are just dicks – and the worst of it can be amplified by alcohol fueled reviews! Handling these types of situations takes a lot of care; overtime we evolved a 3 pronged-approach to handling our reviews:

1. Reward the positive reviews

If you hear something good – let people know about. If you are only keeping an eye out for bad ones, you miss out on making friends who like your product. These are the type of people who will come to your rescue whenever some sort skulldudgery is involved.

Our good friends at Behemoth recently got shellacked on Untappd for  ‘Dump the Trump’. Rabid users from overseas took offence to a Kiwi brewer making a satiric reference to the current US president.  However, fans of the indy brewer showed up in force; no one likes the big bully from the playground messin’ with one of their own!

2. Ask why the review is bad

Whenever possible, always ask why the review is bad. In some cases, it might be oxidised bottles or a bad batch. In other cases, non-traditional beers may produce floaters or unusual colours that might offput drinkers. It actually does matter on the session order too – a lager or kölsch finished after a Hop Zombie will dramatically reduce the taste of these easy going beers. Also judging systems can range from person and even country to country: the top rated brewery in the USA is a whopping 4.71/5, while the best rated one in New Zealand is a more conservative 3.97/5.

One of our proudest moments was when Carlos and I went to Tauranga to demo our  Poke of the Bear.  A guy came up to us and pulled up an Untappd thread were Carlos responded to a bad review. Carlos worked with the reviewer and realised the issue was an oxidised bottle. Carlos took the conversation offline and got the user a good bottle, to which the review was changed. The best part was that the guy showing us the thread was not the affected user, rather someone who was following our brewery. He was just stoked that someone on the other end was actually listening!

3. Just let it go

Sometimes its just best to do nothing at all. In such cases you can sift through profiles and see that some people have nothing good to say. This easier said than done. There several instances when I have read troll reviews I would call up Alvin and Carlos and shout ‘Hey did you hear what that scabby, weapons-grade sh!t-gibbon said in that untappd review?’ I know how hard we work on our beverages, and it can be heartbreaking to see someone be so dismissive and cruel.Luckily – in almost every instance we’ve had friends we have made along way stick up for us with good reviews (see point one).  In some cases, just biting your tongue is the best course of action, and just let the bad reviews take care of themselves.

In short – if you get one of the those shiny 5 star reviews, crack open a bottle and toast them! We have met a lot of these fans in real life, and they soon became great friends to share a drink (or 5) with!

Addendum:

This post was brewing around in my head for a while and took a while to incubate. I really want to thank Andy Nyguyen for his thoughtful presentation at the Full Indy Summit in Vancouver, which was titled “Make Friends, Not Fans“, which inspired me to finally write about this. He touched upon many things we were doing right (an perhaps wrong).  Though we are in different industries (indy video games vs indy brewing) there are more than a few similarities between the two. I’ll add his presentation here as soon as its available.

Big Beer and the illusion of choice

What’s so bad about big breweries? Do they not offer consumers a wide range of products, from premium brews to cheapswill? On paper, the consumer wins. So are complaints by independent brewers just much ado about nothing? After all, if the beer tastes good, why should the consumer care at all?

Independent Brewers associations across the USA, Ireland and Australia do think that customers care. Small brewers can now choose to carry new  ‘independent craft‘ badge on labels, meaning they are produced in small volumes, independent with only a small percentage owned by big beer, and doesn’t produce alcopops / flavoured malt beverages.

Outlier Cartel (along with several other independent breweries) have taken a staunch stand in asking that the NZ Brewers Guild *only* include independent brewers on its board. The NZ board currently has 2 chairs led by Mitsubishi-Kirin (via Lion) and Heineken (via DB).

So are we smaller breweries doing this out of envy of big business? Or are there deeper concerns?  As Creature Comforts founder states: watch the hands, not the cards.  Here are the reasons to be weary of big beer’s influence in New Zealand.

Who made who?

First its to important know that there are 20 breweries in New Zealand that are run by 3 international corporations: These include Mitsubishi (who own subsidiaries Kirin and Lion), Heineken (subsidiaries include DB), and Asahi (subsidiaries include Independent Liquor). Note for the purpose of clarity corporate breweries will be listed in their subsidiary hierarchy.

NZ Brewery Ownership

Outline of NZ Brewery Ownership – Graphic by Garth @ the Beer Library

There are over 200 independent breweries in New Zealand, which on the current NZ Beer wikipedia page are described as “numerous additional brands that operate at a semi-professional level and tend to come and go“. Sadly, semi-professional and transient is precisely the view that big beer has been marketing about craft beer upstarts. Its sad to see this on the one website where the world comes to learn about New Zealand beer.

Watching the Hands…

Misdirection is key for big brewers that have either bought or created ‘craft’ beer labels: “They portray these beers as if they come from small companies when in fact they come from very large companies“. In fact, as most marketers know, it benefits big brewers for consumers not knowing that their premium brands are not owned by an enormous conglomerate.  Such is the unique position of craft beer; consumers love them for the fact they are small and independent; and in many cases – craft beer was started as a rebellion against generic, corporate beer.

In some cases, the landgrab on craft beer reputation is almost comical, such as the case of Trouble Brewing – a corporate brainchild of Walmart, North American Breweries and WX Brands. In this case, Walmart was sued by a customer for misrepresenting craft beer – by the fact that Trouble Brewing does not actually exist as an operation!

By contrast – when a craft brewery works with other companies, most will openly declare with whom they working. This transparency is purposely lost on industrial beers. Furthermore, there is a distinct clarity of who brews the beer. It is not unusual for brewers wanting to show the world they have worked together on a the beer, and these can easily be seen by looking up collaborations on Untappd, which show precisely who worked on the beer.

Control the resources!

Why does this matter to consumers if big breweries (often foreign owned) buy the little guys?

In controlling resources – NZ has gone through a couple of hops shortages, and though details are murky, those with the most buying power can leverage these limited resources. Similarly, the common practice good will amongst smaller breweries worldwide in sharing access to hops and malts and other brewing materials will be severely limited. For those, who aren’t in the industry or are new the spirit of collaboration amongst brewers is both refreshing and astonishing; especially if you come from a background in the cut-throat corporate world.

One method of controlling the resources, is buying out craft breweries. Its an intoxicating proposition for craft breweries to be bought as it gives them buying power they would have never had before, but what is the cost for the craft beer industry?

As the mega breweries buy smaller regional craft breweries, and quickly accelerate their growth through expanded geographic distribution, incremental chain retail placements, and increased marketing support, they are bringing their buying power into the craft beer space, and using that purchasing power to secure large quantities of difficult-to-source varieties of hops and potentially other raw materials. If AB InBev can grow these breweries fast enough, they can impact the overall ability for other craft breweries to grow by limiting access to the raw materials market. That’s happening even from larger craft breweries who want to protect their future resources. Buy now, share later. From that perspective, growing these craft brands may not be about a nice long-term steady growth plan for the brands, but rather a quickly executed defensive play to slow the growth of competitive independent craft breweries in the short-term.

 

Buy out and conquer:

The big boys are ready to spend, and Indepedent Liquor’s parent company said it’s ready to spend billions on acquisitions. For a quick comparison, revenue of Asahi is 18 Billion dollars. An infinitesimal fraction of that can change the entire drinking landscape of New Zealand, if they thought our market was worth pursuing.

In Jim Vorel’s piece, The BS Arguments of Craft Beer Sell-Outs: How Brewery Buyouts Hurt Craft Beer – he gives an an excellent counter-argument to brewery buyouts. These include that expenses reduced competition, cutting support from local communities, and give big breweries the ability to take over more taps and create strangleholds on resources such as hops and malt.

Personally – while Outlier Cartel harbours no ill feelings for people who sell, as people have different reasons to sell; financial reasons are as good as any. However, we live in a transparent world, and if you are planning to leave a legacy, your own reputation will soon be swallowed by the reputation of your buyer.

No distribution for you!

Influencing distrubution: Leverage resources also means distribution: AB InBev introduced an incentive to their distributors, where AB InBev would refund 75% of distributors required marketing spend on AB InBev brands (up to $1.5 million) if AB InBev beers make up 98% of that distributors’ sales. Think about that, they are essentially paying distributors incentives to block competition. While it is unclear if Mitisubishi, Asahi or Heineken are influencing the New Zealand, they certainly do not lack any financial backing to do so.

In short, if you have money to block your competitors you can do this. Let’s hope this is not happening in New Zealand.

Quantity über alles

Volume isn’t everything. In his article Brewing Wars, Shane Colishaw mentioned this about the NZ Brewer’s guild:  “There was no mention of the fact that the Brewers Association may only represent two brewers, but they make more beer than the rest combined.

Although volumes are impressive to investors, boardrooms and press releases – consumers are much more enlightened how beer is made, and demanding quality and sustainability – that’s something that seldom equates to volume. As Jos Ruffell, co-founder of Garage Project states “The bar is higher, people are less tolerant of bad beer, but if you’ve got a unique voice, you’ll be heard.

That unique voice is often muffled by the sound of millions of bottles and cans being processed in a large brewery.

Dirty tricks stay the same, but are just scaled up:

While the size of the brewery doesn’t matter for controversy, corporations can put dirty tricks on a grand scale. It doesn’t take very long to Google to find out Big Beer’s controversies:

Even if honest mistakes where made – they happen on a grander scale, and it requires much more oversight than smaller breweries.

Being Staunchly independent:

Its ongoing battle – its not just just breweries that our being bought out – but also their social channels – RateBeer recently sold a minor stake to a subsidarary of AB Inbev. The renown Dogfishhead Brewing took a hard stand against and removed their beer from RateBeer.  “Once we found out about it we wanted nothing to do with RateBeer anymore even though our beers are very highly rated on there, because we just thought it was a massive conflict of interest.”

Here in New Zealand – there’s a struggle for smaller players getting representation. There are many excellent, making outstanding beer – but what can you do if dirty tactics big money are used to stymie competition? In New Zealand, the NZ Brewers Guild currently tries to represent all brewers, with 2 chairs going to Mitsubishi/Kirin/Lion and Heineken/DB. Many smaller breweries liken to letting the bully on the playground run the show.

Outlier Cartel believes there is room for a completely independent guild, whether it is NZ Brewers Guild or a new entity. In Australia the brewers.org.au represents only Mitsubishi/Kirin/Lion, Coopers and Elders IXL/Carlton & United where as the Independent Brewers Association represent smaller breweries based on output and limited stakeholding from other other representatives.

Is Big Beer inherently bad?

I’d like to think not, in fact its easy to forget that there people just like you and me who work there. While its easy to point negatives, big beer can offer some creative solutions to local communities. One of my favourite’s is SABMiller’s promotion Cassava production for local African farmers to create a local and sustainable economies. Sadly, it doesn’t take long to dig through and find found that SABMiller was using African and Indian as tax havens.

Like anything – ‘craft’ is hard to define, some might even say that gypsy brewers like us are not independent as we are dependent on other peoples brewing equipment. Others have pointed out that the Brewers Association of craft leaves some loopholes for big breweries to labelled as craft.

So where does that leave us?

In short, it gives us choice.

Beer goes to our bodies, those bodies are our living temples.  As modern consumers, we can go beyond just taste, we can make informed decisions about who to support and who not. Unfortunately, big beer has a lousy track record track record of behaving in line with anything other than self interest. Currently New Zealand has a lot of choice, but that choice hangs in the balance if big beer exerts continues to operate in accordance to their historical precedence.

Renegade German Beers: Part 1 – The Gose

What's in a name? Gose is named after the Goslar, which was named after Gosa, wife of mythic Germanic Hunter Ramm.

What’s in a name? Gose is named after the Goslar, which was named after Gosa, wife of mythic German Knight Ramm.

When thinking of German beer, most people think of clean crisp beer, stringently made and perfected – and boring. The Reinheitsgebot is a major region for this thinking, but did you know there were several regional varieties exempt of the German Purity law? Not only are these beers exempted, but they are also exceptional and should be tasted to as part of any craft beer lovers repetoire!

We’ll start the with one of the most divisive styles, the Gose (sounds kind of like Goes-uh). The style is sour beer – which is described as lemony and a distinct salty taste which is from either natural mineral water or added salts. Along with salt, it typically adds coriander and both are no-no’s for the Reinheitsgebot. It was made exempt from the law as it was regionally important beer.

This beer originates in Goslar, in the foot of the Harz Mountains in central North Germany, well back into the 16th Century.

This style was originally brewed by spontaneous fermentation; it was brewed in a source that where wild yeast was present: this means no yeast was added. In addition, Goslar is an internationally recognised region for mineral mineral water, with at least 10 springs that are recognised by the European Commission. In this case, the saltiness of the water came from the natural springs around Goslar. In addition to alkaline water, it is brewed with at least 50% malted wheat, instead of malted barley. Lastly, the sourness comes from the lactobacillus after the boil.

The beer style nearly died several times since the Second World War, but after the craft beer renaissance the style was revived. Because of its unusual taste, the style has been railed upon, some saying tthat that style is so bad that will end the golden era of craft beer, while others say it helped usher in the ‘sour beer‘ revolution . So what can you expect from Gose? Here are some common characteristics:

  • Low ABV (4-5%)
  • Moderate Sourness (although this depends on the tastes of the brewer!)
  • Spiceyness (from coriander)
  • Mild fruity tones (from Wheat)
  • Mild haze (from wheat proteins)
  • Saltiness/Mineralyness

Food Pairing

The most common pairing with Gose is fish and seafood. Examples are white fish such as Halibut, mussels, and the coriander of the beer will complement Cevich beautifully.

The tartness will help cut throught rich sauces – while the saltiness complements eggs and butter. Quiche, Omelets or a simple slice of buttered bread will make a lovely match.

In Germany, the city of Leipzig has become the new home to Gose, and as such the recommended pairing with Gose is Matjesfilets (Pickled herring, onions, apples and cream sauce.)

Finally – to add some authenticity, here is some Plattdüütsch (lower Saxony Dialect) to go with your meal:

Have a nice meal – Laat jo dat lecker smecken!
Cheers – Hold di fuchtig!

Some Final Thoughts

To find good goses is through untappd and ratebeer, here are reviews for the best Gose in world, in Germany and locally in New Zealand. One side effect of having a name like Gose, is that its a ripe target for puns. So its not surprising to see some real groaners like the ones below:

  • Anything Gose
  • The Gose the neighbourhood
  • Here Gose Nothin’
  • No way, Gose
  • Ready, Set, Gose!
  • Gose gone Wild!

Alvin has claimed naming rights should Outlier ever do a Gose, prepare thyself!

Paul's wallet is somewhere on this ridge.

A Wallet, Some Snappage, and the Northern Lights

The wallet held a single dollar bill from USA, and in it’s photo compartment it had a five leaf clover that that I had discovered in Auckland Domain. There were no further contents, it was stationed in my desk drawer along other personal items, ranging from a little red address book from the University of Georgia to the first usb drive I owned (a whopping 128MB). I would occasionally take it out of its drawer and contemplate using it again, only to place it neatly back in the melange of memories that the drawer held. It was the most precious object I owned, far outweighing the mere 1USD inside the folds.  So it remained there in my desk not long after that day in mid January 2011.

A few weeks ago, my wife and I stood on a little knoll under a gray and drizzly Icelandic sky. Although sparsely populated, I kept a lookout for an passing cars. After all, the building of cairns wasn’t exactly encouraged in the country. But I had a promise to keep, and would rather ask for forgiveness than ask for permission. We found an ideal spot on the little hill. Around the area there were some impressive rock piles built, but we decided not to make ours that conspicuous.  We collected an assortment of small and large volanic rocks. Before we assembled our cairn, I reached inside my coat and placed the wallet in its final resting place.

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I first met Paul in May 2005. Little did we both know, that both of our lives would be dramatically transformed not long after that meeting. In the back section of Cafe Melba on Durham Lane, Paul and his brother Mike interviewed me for their startup. I wasn’t expecting much, as I had been burned by my last 2 employers in New Zealand. However, this interview actually went on for over 3 hours – they actually listened to my ideas. I typically brought my portfolio of work projects to work interviews. Never in the past had anyone given my portfolio more than precursory glance, but Paul went through my entire portfolio with gusto, and couldn’t remember be so thrilled and validated at the same.

Soon after, I was hired and my life took a projectory that I could never have imagined. Within a month, I was made a partner. We started in a small office which was less that 10 square meters. My first desk was a stack of yellow pages directories with a board across it. We had 4 people in that office with no air conditioning. Fast forward that same business 13 years later, and it grew to a floorplan that had space for 200 people. Our operations expanded into Australia, China, the UK, and the Philippines.

What’s left out from the above paragraph is the heart of this story. Paul was always there for me. As mentor and a friend, he genuinely cared about me. We put in long, long hours into the business. He helped shaped my view of what it meant to be business leader. While he had no technical background, he connected the information world which I operated in with great vision and knack of knowing where the money was going. On the flipside, though my background was in programming and databases, Paul encouraged my to use my creative skills within the business inside of just typing code and crunching numbers. As a team, we spent hours working on design and user experience long before terms such ‘UI Design’ and ‘onboarding’ became popular to tech firms. Paul would get pen and paper scribbling down elaborate designs which became known as ‘Snappage‘* in our company vernacular. I often helped him with such designs.

Paul gave me the wallet I talked about above. That wallet was my favourite gift he gave me – it was a simple Fossil leather wallet, grey and brown. But it represented the growth I was experiencing in both business and for a lack of a better word, in spirit.

In 2010, Paul’s brother Mike recieved a phone call. Since we shared offices, I felt a heaviness descend on the room as Mike silently listened to the call. Paul had just been diagnosed with cancer, and it was not looking good. We all flew out to Melbourne to visit him. It was a rollercoaster, after a successfull removal of a tumour, the cancer had spread in other vital organs. I remember creating a ‘Shit we gotta do‘ list full of crazy adventures we had to go on when he recovered. The ranged from travelling to Vietnam to going on a dog sled race in Alaska. I remembered one of his favourites was seeing the aurora borealis.

6 months later, in the 10th of January, 2011 Paul passed away.  Such was his spark of life, I thought he could live forever.

His death hit me a like me like a sledgehammer. I remember pouring myself into work. Luckily Mike and the other core members of our business ensured its on going success, despite the void that Paul left behind. Not long afterwards, I talked to some of my friends who travelled to Iceland and saw the northern lights. They said you could build a cairn there for good luck. I immediately knew that I one day I would have to travel there and build a cairn in his memory which was under the aurora borealis.

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

2 years ago I was on east coast Canada, I was walking downtown Halifax and decide to drop by an art store. I picked up a sketch pad and some pencils, something that I hadn’t done for years. It was still early days for Outlier Cartel and we still defining our place in the world. After buying the sketch book, I came up with the concept for Sophicated Yeti and Apricity. Later that same year some further scribblings eventually became Cargo Cult and From Such Great Heights.

However, it wasn’t until I returned back to New Zealand when I realised something.  After I had reluctantly shown some of the sketches to Mike, he smiled and said I was carrying on Paul’s tradition in Outlier Cartel. At that point, I felt the same way when I showed Paul my little portfolio many years before. I also had a strange sensation that Paul was there as well.

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

I did my best to keep the dollar bill dry as cold drops of rain pelted me from over head. My hands were muddy from the rocks I had gather and the pen was running out of ink. Though a bit hasty, I put some snappage on the one dollar bill, and placed back into the wallet. Afterwards we placed the final stones on the Cairn, I apologised to Paul that it took me over 7 bloody years to bring him to this spot beneath the Northern Lights.

My wife took my hand and smiled, and we walked back down the hill.

* Snappage was sort of shorthand for ‘Snappy’ drawings – quick sketches, notes or business plans usually done on copier paper.